Description
Our hope of the second coming is reason to be encouraged when facing persecution. Jesus will come with his mighty angels and pay back his enemies with consuming fire, but will be worshipped and admired by his believers.
Commentary
Hope in Persecution (v5-10)
These verses present our hope of the second coming as reason to be encouraged in the midst of persecution. At the second coming, Jesus will eternally judge those who afflict his people (v6).

Paul looks forward to the day when Jesus will be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels (v7). Jesus described the involvement of angels in various roles at his second coming. In Matthew 13:39-49 they gather the end-time harvest and separate the wicked from the righteous. Similarly in Matthew 24:31, they blow trumpets and gather the elect from around the world. In Matthew 16:27 and 25:31 they are involved in assigning judgments and rewards. How many angels will be involved? Matthew 25:31 says that all the angels will accompany him at his coming. According to Jude 14, he will be accompanied by thousands and thousands of his 'holy ones'. These could be angels or they could be resurrected believers. Similarly, in Revelation 19:14 he enters the battle of Armageddon accompanied by the armies of heaven. These could be angelic armies, or resurrected and raptured believers, or a combination of both. Here in verse 7, their description as 'mighty angels', followed by the description of Jesus meting out punishment on unbelievers, gives the impression that they are warrior angels who will be involved in this judgment.

Jesus uses flaming fire as punishment against those who reject the gospel (v8). His use of fire in his second coming judgments and battles is portrayed in Psalm 50:3, 97:3, Isaiah 10:17, 13:8, 29:6, 33:11-14, 66:15-16, Joel 2:3, Amos 1, Obadiah 1:18, and Nahum 1:6, 2:13, 3, 13. Obadiah 1:18 is an example where the people of Israel are involved in using fire against God's enemies, and demonstrates that the armies of heaven that accompany Jesus will include believers, not just angels.

This fire will not only kill people, but will result in their eternal damnation and banishment from his presence (v9).

He will come to be gloried among and admired by all who have believed (v10). This alludes to the coronation scene of Daniel 7:13-14, when the Son of Man descends upon the clouds and is worshipped by all peoples, nations and language groups.
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Tags: Angels at the second coming, Jesus uses fire, Coronation of Jesus, Hope of the second coming, Facing persecution
Salutation
1 From Paul and Silvanus and Timothy, to the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Grace and peace to you from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

Thanksgiving
3 We ought to thank God always for you, brothers and sisters, and rightly so, because your faith flourishes more and more and the love of each one of you all for one another is ever greater.
4 As a result we ourselves boast about you in the churches of God for your perseverance and faith in all the persecutions and afflictions you are enduring.

Encouragement in Persecution
5 This is evidence of God’s righteous judgment, to make you worthy of the kingdom of God, for which in fact you are suffering.
6 For it is right for God to repay with affliction those who afflict you,
7 and to you who are being afflicted to give rest together with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels.
8 With flaming fire he will mete out punishment on those who do not know God and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus.
9 They will undergo the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his strength,
10 when he comes to be glorified among his saints and admired on that day among all who have believed – and you did in fact believe our testimony.
11 And in this regard we pray for you always, that our God will make you worthy of his calling and fulfill by his power your every desire for goodness and every work of faith,
12 that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.
(NET)