This chapter prophesies the restoration of Israel and Judah, together as one nation under a Davidic ruler (Jesus). The peace and prosperity of Millennial Jerusalem is portrayed.
This revelation, received shortly before Jerusalem's fall to the Babylonians in 586 BC, continues that given in the previous chapter. Jerusalem will certainly fall, but God will one day restore Judah. That restoration included the promise of God making a new covenant with Judah, including the promise that he will cause them never to turn away from him again (32:40). When the new covenant was first introduced in 31:33, it came with a promise of complete forgiveness, not just for Judah but for both Israel and Judah, that they would all know God (31:34). This chapter gives further revelation of the restoration of Israel and Judah as a whole.

In verses 4 to 5, the certainty of Jerusalem's imminent fall is affirmed. Those killed trying to defend the city will not simply be victims of Babylonian military aggression. God considers himself as their killer. He has turned his back on the city because of the wicked things they have done, and the actions of his 'servant' Nebuchadnezzar (25:9) are considered the actions of God.

But in verses 6 to 9, God promises a time when he will heal the city and show abundant peace and security to both Israel and Judah, restoring the nation as in days of old (v7), alluding back to the time of David when they were one nation. The new covenant, as promised in 31:33, is again confirmed in that they will receive complete forgiveness from all their sins (v8). The joy that God brings to Jerusalem will bring him fame, honour and praise before all nations. They will tremble in awe at the peace and prosperity that God provides for Jerusalem. Psalm 48 graphically portrays this 'trembling in awe' at the sight of Millennial Jerusalem.

Verses 10 to 13 once again affirm Jerusalem's imminent destruction and ruin, but also its future restoration, along with the territories of Judah.

Verses 14 to 18 promise the restoration also of the nation of Israel (the northern kingdom) along with Judah (the southern kingdom). God will raise up a Davidic ruler over the nation as a whole. This is Jesus, who will rule the world forever (v17 and Isaiah 9:7). Under his rule, Jerusalem will be called 'The Lord our Righteousness' (v16). The role of the Levitical priests is also affirmed (v18). The presence of the temple in Millennial Jerusalem is affirmed in verse 11.

In verses 19 to 22, God's covenant to his servant David (Jesus) and to the Levites is as certain as daytime and nighttime coming at their proper times. According to Revelation 21:22 - 22:5, in the New Jerusalem of the eternal age there will be neither temple nor nighttime. But according to Jeremiah, both of these will certainly be present in the Millennial age. God will cause the population of Millennial Israel to greatly increase (v22).

In verses 23 to 26, this same assurance of continuity is given concerning the restoration of both Israel and Judah, together as one nation under a Davidic ruler.
Places: Jerusalem, Judah, Israel, Millennial Jerusalem
Tags: Restoration of Judah, Restoration of Israel and Judah, New covenant, Complete forgiveness of sins for Israel and Judah, Millennium, Millennial temple, Millennial Jerusalem, Millennial prosperity, Millennial peace, Millennial priesthood, Jesus as Davidic ruler
The Lord Promises a Second Time to Restore Israel and Judah
1 The Lord’s message came to Jeremiah a second time while he was still confined in the courtyard of the guardhouse.
2 “I, the Lord, do these things. I, the Lord, form the plan to bring them about. I am known as the Lord. I say to you,
3 ‘Call on me in prayer and I will answer you. I will show you great and mysterious things which you still do not know about.’
4 For I, the Lord God of Israel, have something more to say about the houses in this city and the royal buildings of Judah that have been torn down for defenses against the siege ramps and military incursions of the Babylonians:
5 ‘The defenders of the city will go out and fight with the Babylonians. But they will only fill those houses and buildings with the dead bodies of the people that I will kill in my anger and my wrath. That will happen because I have decided to turn my back on this city on account of the wicked things they have done.
6 But I will most surely heal the wounds of this city and restore it and its people to health. I will show them abundant peace and security.
7 I will restore Judah and Israel and will rebuild them as they were in days of old.
8 I will purify them from all the sin that they committed against me. I will forgive all their sins which they committed in rebelling against me.
9 All the nations will hear about all the good things that I will do for them. This city will bring me fame, honor, and praise before them for the joy that I bring it. The nations will tremble in awe at all the peace and prosperity that I will provide for it.’
10 “I, the Lord, say: ‘You and your people are saying about this place, “It lies in ruins. There are no people or animals in it.” That is true. The towns of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem will soon be desolate, uninhabited either by people or by animals. But happy sounds will again be heard in these places.
11 Once again there will be sounds of joy and gladness and the glad celebrations of brides and grooms. Once again people will bring their thank offerings to the temple of the Lord and will say, “Give thanks to the Lord of Heaven’s Armies. For the Lord is good and his unfailing love lasts forever.” For I, the Lord, affirm that I will restore the land to what it was in days of old.’
12 “I, the Lord of Heaven’s Armies, say: ‘This place will indeed lie in ruins. There will be no people or animals in it. But there will again be in it and in its towns sheepfolds where shepherds can rest their sheep.
13 I, the Lord, say that shepherds will once again count their sheep as they pass into the fold. They will do this in all the towns in the hill country, the foothills, the Negev, the territory of Benjamin, the villages surrounding Jerusalem, and the towns of Judah.’

The Lord Reaffirms His Covenant with David, Israel, and Levi
14 “I, the Lord, affirm: ‘The time will certainly come when I will fulfill my gracious promise concerning the nations of Israel and Judah.
15 In those days and at that time I will raise up for them a righteous descendant of David.
“‘He will do what is just and right in the land.
16 Under his rule Judah will enjoy safety and Jerusalem will live in security. At that time Jerusalem will be called “The Lord has provided us with justice.”
17 For I, the Lord, promise: “David will never lack a successor to occupy the throne over the nation of Israel.
18 Nor will the Levitical priests ever lack someone to stand before me and continually offer up burnt offerings, sacrifice cereal offerings, and offer the other sacrifices.”’”
19 The Lord’s message came to Jeremiah another time.
20 “I, the Lord, make the following promise: ‘I have made a covenant with the day and with the night that they will always come at their proper times. Only if you people could break that covenant
21 could my covenant with my servant David and my covenant with the Levites ever be broken. So David will by all means always have a descendant to occupy his throne as king and the Levites will by all means always have priests who will minister before me.
22 I will make the children who follow one another in the line of my servant David very numerous. I will also make the Levites who minister before me very numerous. I will make them all as numerous as the stars in the sky and as the sands which are on the seashore.’”
23 The Lord’s message came to Jeremiah another time.
24 “You have surely noticed what these people are saying, haven’t you? They are saying, ‘The Lord has rejected the two families of Israel and Judah that he chose.’ So my people they disdain, not believing they will ever again be a nation before them.
25 But I, the Lord, make the following promise: I have made a covenant governing the coming of day and night. I have established the fixed laws governing heaven and earth.
26 Just as surely as I have done this, so surely will I never reject the descendants of Jacob. Nor will I ever refuse to choose one of my servant David’s descendants to rule over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Indeed, I will restore them and show mercy to them.”