In these chapters, John sees seven angels who pour out seven bowls of God's wrath upon the earth. These are similar to the trumpet judgments, but more severe, and anticipate God's final judgment at the battle of Armageddon. They are also similar to the plagues of Egypt.
Revelation 15
Chapter 14 ended with an angel swinging his sickle over the vine of the Earth and gathering the grapes into the great winepress of the wrath of God. This anticipates the final series of divine judgment events that are revealed in chapters 15 to 16.

With the camera having zoomed out, as it were, to give us a wide-angle perspective of Great Tribulation events in chapters 12 to 14, the camera now zooms back in to reveal the detail of the final series of judgments. Revelation reveals three chronological series of judgment events, the seal judgments (Revelation 6-8), the trumpet judgments (Revelation 8-11), and the bowl judgments (Revelation 15-16).

In verse 1, John sees another great and astounding sign in heaven. This introduction is similar to that in chapter 12, where he introduced two great signs that would occur in the sky, involving the sun, moon and stars. The word 'heaven' is the Greek word 'ouranos' which can mean 'sky' or 'heaven'. From the description that follows in this chapter, it is clear that John is seeing what will happen in heaven, not in the sky. He sees seven angels who have seven final plagues, and he explains that they are 'final' because in them God's anger will be completed. So they represent the final outpouring of God's wrath. Daniel 11:36 says of the Antichrist, "He will exalt and magnify himself above every deity and he will utter presumptuous things against the God of gods. He will succeed until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been decreed must occur". So these final plagues, and the battle of Armageddon which follows, complete 'the time of wrath'. This is what Isaiah calls 'the day of vengeance of our God' (Isaiah 61:2-NIV). Jesus is the Prince of Peace, and is coming back to establish his kingdom of peace on Earth (Isaiah 9:6-7). But he must first wage war in order to establish that peace.

In terms of chronology, this chapter follows the last of the seven trumpets, which occurred in Revelation 11:15-19. So the last trumpet has been blown, Jesus has descended upon the clouds, the archangel has proclaimed the beginning of his reign over the world, the nations have responded in rage, and the Church has been resurrected and raptured. When I say 'the Church', I include Messianic Jews and probably the 144,000 Israelites in that. It is important to remember that both Jews and Gentiles make up the Church as 'one new man' (Ephesians 2:15). When the Church was established at Pentecost, it began as an entirely Jewish movement. After some time the door of salvation was opened to Gentiles, and over the centuries the Church has lost its Jewish identity. But it is a mistake to think of the end-time Church as a Gentile body. After the rapture, Christ's mission is to rescue the many unsaved Israelites who remain on earth, restore them to faith, lead them back to the promised land, defeat the Antichrist, and establish his Millennial reign over the entire world.

With his feet upon the ground, I believe that Christ's first mission is to rescue the unsaved Jewish refugees from 'Bozrah', which also means a 'sheepfold' (Micah 2:12-13). These are the Jews who escaped to a place of safety in the wilderness, to be taken care of by God for 1,260 days (Revelation 12:6). Their rescue marks the end of the 1,260 day period of Great Tribulation or suffering (Matthew 24:29). Micah 2:13 says that the Lord (i.e. Jesus) will break them out and lead them, advancing before them as their king.

In ancient times, Bozrah was the capital of Edom, and the description of their location as 'Bozrah' in Micah 2:12 points figuratively to a location in the same general area that was biblically known as Edom. Edom stretched from the bottom of the Dead Sea in modern-day Jordan to Dedan (Al-Ula) in modern-day Saudi Arabia (Ezekiel 25:13). The place from which they are rescued is also figuratively called 'Babylon' in Micah 4:10. Arabia is also figuratively identified as 'Babylon' in Isaiah 21, and as 'Mystery Babylon' in Revelation 17-18. Isaiah 63:1-6 prophesies Israel's end-time vindication and deliverance, with Messiah marching through Edom and stomping the nations like grapes in a winepress. Jesus emerges from Edom with his royal robes splattered in the blood of his enemies whom he has slaughtered (see also Revelation 19:13). Habakkuk 3:1-15 also describes Christ's Edom campaign when he marches out to deliver his people. His splendour covers the skies, and plagues go before him. These are the plagues that are detailed in Revelation 16.

In verse 2, John again sees the sea of glass. He first saw this in Revelation 4:6, where he said that it was in front of God's throne. Now it is mixed with fire, which probably signifies God's fiery wrath that is about to be poured out on the earth. Those who had conquered the beast and his image and the number of his name were standing on or by the sea of glass, holding harps given them by God. In Revelation 7:9, John saw an enormous crowd from every nation, tribe, people, and language standing before the throne and praising God. It appeared in chapter 7 that they were martyrs. Here in chapter 15, it is probable that the crowd of martyrs have now been joined by those who have been resurrected and raptured at the seventh trumpet. The implication is that they have conquered the beast and his image and the number of his name by refusing to worship him, or to bow down to the image set up by the False Prophet, or to receive the mark of the beast (Revelation 13:11-18). They have conquered by remaining faithful to Jesus, even though for many of them it meant being martyred for their faith (Revelation 2:10-11, 6:11, 12:11, 13:7-10, 14:11-12, 20:4). They are now given harps (in fulfilment of Psalm 98:5) and join in the singing. Previously, only the 144,000 were singing (Revelation 14:3).

In verses 3 to 4, they sing the Song of Moses and the Song of the Lamb. The Song of Moses is Deuteronomy 32:1-43. It ends with the end-time vindication and deliverance of Israel when God takes up his sword and releases his arrows to execute vengeance on his foes (Deuteronomy 32:39-43). The song that is recorded here in verses 3 to 4 is the Song of the Lamb. Verse 3 affirms the great and astounding deeds of Jesus, who is the Lord God Almighty, who is just and true, and who is King over the nations. This reaffirms that by this point in focus he has already begun to rule the world as proclaimed in Revelation 11:15. Verse 4 is an end-time call for all the nations to worship Jesus at his second coming, for his holiness and righteous acts have been revealed. This call is prophesied in Psalms 96 and 98, and in Isaiah 42:8-17. The Apostle Paul also spoke of the time when every knee must bow and every tongue confess Jesus as Lord at his coming (Philippians 2:9-11). Christ's righteous acts are revealed through his deliverance of Israel. Ezekiel prophesied that all nations will come to know Jesus because of the way he delivers Israel (Ezekiel 36:23).

In verse 5, John looks and the temple is opened in heaven. He explains that the temple is actually 'the tent of the testimony'. This is the heavenly tabernacle upon which Moses modelled the Old Testament tabernacle, according to the pattern that God showed him on the mountain (Exodus 25:40). The testimony refers to God's righteous requirements, as revealed in the ten commandments. In the earthly tabernacle, the stone tablets inscribed with the ten commandments were kept in the ark, in the most holy place in the tabernacle. Its mention here implies that the seven angels who emerge with the seven plagues will release them upon the earth because the earth's inhabitants have failed to obey God's righteous requirements. The angels are dressed in clean bright linen and wear golden belts around their chests. These signify their righteousness and majesty (v6).

In verse 7, one of the four living creatures (Cherubim) gives the seven angels seven golden bowls filled with the wrath of God. Each of these is like the cup of judgment that Jeremiah prophetically made the nations drink in Jeremiah 25. Those who must drink it are those who have drunk the wine that Mystery Babylon offered them (Revelation 14:8-10, 17:4, 18:6). It is God's payback time upon the followers of the Antichrist and his false god, Allah.

In verse 8, the temple is filled with the smoke of God's glory and power, such that no-one can enter the temple until the seven plagues are completed. This is like in Exodus 40:34-38, when the cloud of God's presence covered the tabernacle and Moses could not enter. The Israelites would remain in their place as long as the cloud remained, and march out whenever the cloud lifted. This suggests that end-time Israel must remain in place until these judgments have been fully released. Isaiah 63:1-6 makes it clear that Jesus fights his Edom campaign alone. Later on, however, when he fights the battle of Armageddon, he is accompanied by the armies of heaven (Revelation 19:14), which I assume to include resurrected and raptured believers, and possibly angels. Various scriptures also portray the Jews fighting alongside Jesus in his end-time battles (Psalm 118:10-12, 149:1-9, Isaiah 19:17, Micah 4:13, 5:8, Zephaniah 2:9, Zechariah 9:11-16, 12:5-9). So as he saves and gathers mortal Israelites during his post-rapture campaigns, they are recruited into his army, just as in Exodus 7:3 Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt as 'regiments'.

Revelation 16 - Seven Bowls
In verse 1, a loud voice from the temple, possible the voice of God himself, tells the seven angels to pour out on the earth the seven bowls of God's wrath. These plagues that strike Antichrist's empire are similar to those with which Moses struck Egypt. In a sense they portray Antichrist as the end-time Pharaoh, and Jesus as the end-time Moses who leads the remnant of Israel out of captivity in Antichrist's kingdom and back to the promised land. In Exodus 7:3-5, God says to Moses, "But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and although I will multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt, Pharaoh will not listen to you. I will reach into Egypt and bring out my regiments, my people the Israelites, from the land of Egypt with great acts of judgment. Then the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand over Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them". During the time in focus here in Revelation 16, it is as though God says to Jesus, "But I will harden Antichrist's heart, and although I will multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Islam, Antichrist will not listen to you. I will reach into Antichrist's kingdom and bring out my regiments, my people the Israelites, from the land of Islam with great acts of judgment. Then the whole world will know that I am the Lord, when I extend my hand over Antichrist's kingdom and bring the Israelites out from among them". As a reference, in Exodus 7-12, God struck Egypt with the following:

Reference - The Ten plagues of Egypt
1st plague - Rivers and reservoirs to blood (Exodus 7:14-24)
2nd plague - Frogs (Exodus 8:1-15)
3rd plague - Gnats (Exodus 8:16-19)
4th plague - Flies (Exodus 8:20-32)
5th plague - Livestock struck with disease (Exodus 9:1-7)
6th plague - Boils afflict people and animals (Exodus 9:8-12)
7th plague - Hail and thunder (Exodus 9:13-35)
8th plague - Locusts (Exodus 10:1-20)
9th plague - Darkness (Exodus 10:21-28)
10th plague - Death of the firstborn (11:1-12:36)

Comparison with the seven trumpets
In chapter 8, the first four trumpets affected a third of the land, of the sea, of the rivers and of the sky. The first four bowls affect the land, the sea, the rivers and the sky in the same order, but the effect seems to be total in each case. These effects are not necessary global, but are probably total only in proximity to Antichrist's geographical empire. So it is likely they are concentrated geographically on the Middle East area. Although I believe that Antichrist will have a global reach into all the nations of the world through Muslims giving him their allegiance, it is likely that his empire will be limited geographically to what we might describe today as 'the Muslim World'. By that, I mean all countries today that have a muslim-majority population and a government that is biased towards Islam. During the Great Tribulation, as Antichrist invades and sweeps through nations (Daniel 11:40), and as large numbers of people around the world convert to Islam and worship him (Revelation 13:8), it is possible that the 'end-time Muslim World' will be somewhat enlarged compared to what it is today.

1st bowl - ugly and painful sores afflict those who have the mark of the beast and have worshipped his image (v2). This is similar to the 6th plague of Egypt. Painful sores are a form of 'pestilence' corresponding with Habakkuk 3:5, "Plague goes before him; pestilence marches right behind him".

2nd bowl - the sea is turned to blood and every sea creature dies (v3). I assume this to be speaking primarily about seas in the vicinity of Antichrist's empire, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and Persian Gulf. Habakkuk 3:8 asks, "Are you angry with the rivers? Are you enraged at the sea?" The previous verse says, "I see the tents of Cushan overwhelmed by trouble; the tent curtains of the land of Midian are shaking". Midian was the region on the east side of the Gulf of Aqaba, in what today is the north-western corner of Saudi Arabia. So it points especially to the northern parts of the Red Sea being afflicted.

3rd bowl - rivers and springs of water are turned to blood, so Antichrist's followers only have blood to drink (v4). This is similar to the 1st plague of Egypt. An angel explains that this is God's just revenge upon them for having poured out the blood of God's saints and prophets (v5-6). The prophets in this context are Christians who minister under the end-time prophetic anointing prophesied in Joel 2:28-32. Although Joel's prophecy has been partially fulfilled since the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:17-21), it is ultimately an end-time prophecy relating to the last days before 'the day of the Lord'. Many of these end-time prophetic ministers will be martyred. The altar responds saying, "Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, your judgments are true and just!" (v7). This voice from the altar implies that the martyrs' lives were a holy sacrifice unto God, and their blood cries out like the blood of Abel in Genesis 4:10.

4th bowl - the sun scorches people with fire and terrible heat (v8). These are dramatic solar flares. Isaiah 30:26 also describes the sun becoming seven times brighter. But even though people are scorched, they refuse to repent and give God glory (v9). This is similar to Pharaoh's stubborn response to the plagues of Egypt (e.g. Exodus 8:15). Solar flares of this magnitude would likely destroy all satellites and probably all of the earth's electrical infrastructure.

5th bowl - darkness is poured out on the throne of the beast, plunging his kingdom into darkness (v10). According to Revelation 13:2, the throne of the beast is given to him by Satan. And in Revelation 2:13, Jesus identified the Altar of Zeus in Pergamum (western Turkey) as the throne of Satan. Based on Ezekiel 38:2, I believe the Antichrist will arise out of Turkey. So it may be correct to understand that verse 10 points especially to darkness covering the nation of Turkey. Alternatively, if you understand Mecca to be the modern-day location of Satan's throne (see my commentary on Revelation 2:12-17), it may be correct to understand that Arabia is in view here. But when Satan gives his throne to the Antichrist (Revelation 13:2) and he takes his seat in God's temple, displaying himself as God (2 Thessalonians 2:4), does he move Satan's throne and set it up in Jerusalem? The Jerusalem temple is considered to be the earthly footstool of God's throne (1 Chronicles 28:2, Isaiah 66:1), so it seems unlikely that Revelation would identify Jerusalem with the throne of the beast. That would be an affirmation of the counterfeit. Hence I believe a plague of darkness over Turkey or over Arabia is primarily in view here. It also says that his kingdom is plunged into darkness, possibly referring to his empire in the broader geographical sense. When Egypt was struck with darkness in the 9th plague, it covered the whole country except the region of Goshen where the Israelites lived (Exodus 10:22-23). So it was a localised phenomenon, probably caused by smoke or ash in the atmosphere that blocked the sunlight. Whatever its cause, it was so thick that it resulted in pitch darkness. No one could see another person!

Regarding this end-time plague of darkness, it's cause is likely associated with the fall of Mystery Babylon, which Revelation 14:8-14 places some time before Jesus returns upon the clouds at the seventh trumpet. The fall of Mystery Babylon is first prophesied in Isaiah 21:9 and is followed by an Arabian refugee crisis (Isaiah 21:13-15). This lasts for one calendar year, after which 'all the splendor of Kedar will come to an end' (Isaiah 21:16). Kedar was the second son of Ishmael, and is believed by most Muslims to be the ancestor of the Prophet Mohammed. So the area identified as Kedar in Isaiah 21:16 points to the region of Mecca, where Mohammed came from. The final destruction of the 'great city' (Mecca) comes at the 7th bowl (Revelation 16:19), but at a national level, Mystery Babylon (Saudi Arabia) falls a year before that. The same area in northern Arabia associated with the refugee crisis in Isaiah 21:13-15 is also identified as part of Edom in Ezekiel 25:13. Isaiah 34:9 prophesies about this region saying, "Edom’s streams will be turned into pitch and her soil into brimstone; her land will become burning pitch". In other words, we should expect the fall of Saudi Arabia about a year before the seven bowl judgments take place, with the Arabian oil fields being set alight. This will cause an enormous amount of dense atmospheric pollution around the Middle East. This may cover Arabia in darkness, but if the winds blows the smoke towards Turkey, it could also cover Turkey and other parts of Antichrist's empire in a cloud of darkness.

Verse 10 also says that the people began to bite their tongues because of their pain, another reference to their painful sores (1st bowl). Here we see the accumulative effect of the bowl judgments. It is also likely that the solar flares from the 4th bowl will have knocked out electrical infrastructure, so no-one will be able to just turn the lights on. Despite the accumulative effects of these judgments taking their toll on Antichrist's followers, verse 11 tells us they blaspheme God (i.e. curse him) because of their sufferings, and refuse to repent.

Knowing the story of the plagues of Egypt, we know where this refusal to repent is heading. The plague of darkness was Pharaoh's last chance to repent before the last and most terrible plague, the death of every firstborn. The death of the firstborn affected every household in the land of Egypt, and was so terrible that the Egyptians then drove the Israelites out of Egypt in fear that all of them might otherwise die (Exodus 12:33). Here in Revelation, although the plague of darkness is only the 5th bowl judgment and there are still two more bowls to go, the refusal of Antichrist and his followers to repent at this point means it is now inevitable they will face God's most severe punishments. The 6th bowl anticipates their inevitable massacre at Armageddon, and the 7th represents the most horrendous and final plague.

6th bowl - the River Euphrates is dried up to prepare the way for the kings of the east and their armies heading towards Israel for the final battle (v12). John sees evil spirits coming out of the mouths of the dragon (Satan), the beast (the Antichrist) and the False Prophet (v13). These are miracle working demons enabling the Antichrist and the False Prophet to perform false signs that convince the kings or rulers of the earth to gather their armies for battle (v14). The gathering point for the battle is Armageddon (v16). 'Armageddon' is a transliteration of the Hebrew 'Har-Magedon', meaning 'Mount of Magedon', or Tel Megiddo as it is known today. This is a location in the north of Israel that acts as the staging post for the final battle. But the final battle is really over Jerusalem. As the battle draws near, it appears that Jesus besieges occupied Jerusalem (Zechariah 12:2) before his final assault at the day and hour determined by God the Father (Zechariah 14:7, Matthew 24:36).

Verse 15 suggests that even at this point it is possible for individuals to repent and be saved. Jesus warns that he will come like a thief. I believe this metaphor is appropriate to each stage of his second coming, including his final assault on Jerusalem. Here, the thief metaphor implies:
1) an element of surprise concerning the timing of his final assault on Jerusalem
2) that those who fail to heed this warning and repent will suffer great loss
3) that if they repent even at this late stage, they can still prevent themselves from suffering such loss. In Luke 23:39-43, one of the two thieves hanging on a cross next to Jesus repented and put his faith in Jesus. Even at that late stage in his life, hours before his death, Jesus said to him, "I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise".
See also my commentary on Matthew 24:42-44 concerning the thief metaphor. Verse 15b tells us that blessed are those who stay alert and do not lose their clothes so that they have to walk around naked and be shamefully exposed. It is best to understand their clothing in a metaphorical sense here. Sinfulness is sometimes portrayed metaphorically as people wearing filthy or stained clothing (Isaiah 64:6, Zechariah 3:3, Revelation 3:4), and righteousness as people wearing clean white robes (e.g. Zechariah 3:5, Revelation 6:11, 7:13). In the presence and light of Jesus, everyone's wicked deeds will be exposed (John 3:20, Ephesians 5:13-14). So metaphorically, those who continue as unrepentant sinners beyond this point will be shamefully exposed. In Christ's presence, nothing will cover or hide their sinfulness and shame.

7th bowl - the heavens are shaken by thunder and lightning, and the earth by a gigantic earthquake (v18). These happen in response to the seventh angel pouring out his bowl into the air, whereupon he says 'It is done'. Although not exactly the same expression in Greek, this is similar to when Jesus said "It is finished" before he died (John 19:30). God's wrath against sin had been fully poured out upon Jesus as he hung upon the cross. When the seventh angel pours out his bowl upon the earth, the plagues of God's wrath are viewed as complete. The battle of Armageddon is still to come, but with the sixth bowl having been poured out it is an unstoppable reality, and so it is viewed as though it has been completed. Alternatively, another way of interpreting the words "It is done" is to imagine the proverbial 'big red button' on the President's desk that will set off 'nuclear war and armageddon'. It is as though the angel says "It is done! I've pressed it!" Rather than setting off a nuclear war, what he sets off is an earthquake that is many times more powerful than any nuclear bomb.

The earthquake is said to be unequalled in magnitude since humanity has been on the earth (v18). Although an aside to the main point here, this is a subtle biblical clue that the earth may have existed for a long time (and not just five literal days) before humanity appeared on the earth. This end-time shaking of the heavens and the earth, is prophesied in Psalm 29:8, 46:2-3, Isaiah 13:13, 24:18-19, 27:12, 30:28, 64:2, Ezekiel 38:20, Amos 9:9, Nahum 3:12, Joel 3:16, Habakkuk 3:10, Matthew 24:29, Mark 13:25, Luke 21:26. With some of these, it is not entirely clear whether they relate to the huge earthquake that takes place at the sixth seal when the stars appear to fall like figs (Revelation 6:12-13), or whether they relate to this even greater earthquake at the seventh bowl. For example, Isaiah 13:13 says, "So I will shake the heavens, and the earth will shake loose from its foundation, because of the fury of the Lord of Heaven’s Armies, in the day he vents his raging anger". This fits in context with the Medes (Iran) attacking 'Babylon' (Saudi Arabia in an end-time context) and 'Babylon' being destroyed like Sodom and Gomorrah (Isaiah 13:17-19).

Verse 19 says, "The great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations collapsed. So Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath". The 'great city' and 'Babylon the great' are what is often translated as 'Mystery Babylon' in Revelation 17:5, and what is called 'Kedar' in Isaiah 21:16. Kedar points to its location in central Arabia, and especially to Mecca from which the Prophet Mohammed came. Most Muslims believe Mohammed to be a descendant of Ishmael's second son Kedar. Although the epicentre of this earthquake is likely to be in Arabia, it is so massive that 'the cities of the nations collapsed'. This doesn't necessary mean of all nations, but certainly many nations. The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake was so massive that the resulting tsunami devastated coastal regions in many nations around the Indian Ocean. The earthquake at the seventh bowl will be many times more massive still. Verse 20 says that 'every island fled away and no mountains could be found'. The bible may well be using hyperbole here, but it certainly points to major geographical and topographical changes.

For further comments on 'Babylon the great' and on the 'cup filled with the wine made of God's furious wrath' in verse 19, see my commentaries on Revelation 14:8-13 and on Revelation 17-18.

Verse 21 says, "And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds each, fell from heaven on people, but they blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it was so horrendous". Thunder and hail remind us of the seventh plague upon Egypt (Exodus 9:13-35). The people's continued unwillingness to repent points again to the inevitability of the battle of Armageddon and the massacre of Antichrist's followers that is anticipated by the sixth bowl.
Places: Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Kedar, Mystery Babylon
Symbols: Seven bowls, Cup of intoxicating wine of judgment, Throne of Satan, Throne of the beast, Stained clothes, White clothes
Tags: Sea of glass, Song of Moses, Song of the Lamb, All nations called to worship, Seven bowls, Plagues, Heavenly temple, Four living creatures, Thief in the night, Great earthquake, Armageddon, Boils, Sores, Waters to blood, Solar flares, Plague of darkness, Sun and moon darkened, Plague of hail
The Final Plagues
15 Then I saw another great and astounding sign in heaven: seven angels who have seven final plagues (they are final because in them God’s anger is completed).
2 Then I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who had conquered the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing by the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God.
3 They sang the song of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb:
“Great and astounding are your deeds,
Lord God, the All-Powerful!
Just and true are your ways,
King over the nations!
4 Who will not fear you, O Lord,
and glorify your name, because you alone are holy?
All nations will come and worship before you
for your righteous acts have been revealed.”
5 After these things I looked, and the temple (the tent of the testimony) was opened in heaven,
6 and the seven angels who had the seven plagues came out of the temple, dressed in clean bright linen, wearing wide golden belts around their chests.
7 Then one of the four living creatures gave the seven angels seven golden bowls filled with the wrath of God who lives forever and ever,
8 and the temple was filled with smoke from God’s glory and from his power. Thus no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues from the seven angels were completed.

The Bowls of God’s Wrath

16 Then I heard a loud voice from the temple declaring to the seven angels: “Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls containing God’s wrath.”
2 So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then ugly and painful sores appeared on the people who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.
3 Next, the second angel poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died.
4 Then the third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood.
5 Now I heard the angel of the waters saying:
“You are just – the one who is and who was,
the Holy One – because you have passed these judgments,
6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets,
so you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!”
7 Then I heard the altar reply, “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, your judgments are true and just!”
8 Then the fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people with fire.
9 Thus people were scorched by the terrible heat, yet they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.
10 Then the fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that darkness covered his kingdom, and people began to bite their tongues because of their pain.
11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings and because of their sores, but nevertheless they still refused to repent of their deeds.
12 Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water to prepare the way for the kings from the east.
13 Then I saw three unclean spirits that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful.
15 (Look ! I will come like a thief!
Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition be seen.)
16 Now the spirits gathered the kings and their armies to the place that is called Armageddon in Hebrew.
17 Finally the seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!”
18 Then there were flashes of lightning, roaring, and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake – an earthquake unequaled since humanity has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake.
19 The great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations collapsed. So Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath.
20 Every island fled away and no mountains could be found.
21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds each, fell from heaven on people, but they blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it was so horrendous.