Description
Chapters 47 to 49 are oracles of God's judgment against Philistia, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damasus, Kedar, and Elam. It is likely these will find their ultimate fulfilment in the end-times.
Commentary
Chapters 47 to 49 are oracles of God's judgment against the nations of Philistia (chapter 47), Moab (chapter 48), Ammon, Edom, Damasus, Kedar, and Elam (chapter 49). It is likely these oracles were at least partially fulfilled through Nebuchadnezzar's conquests and the expansion of his Babylonian Empire in the 6th century BC. But comparing these oracles with prophecies like Amos 1 and Zechariah 9, it is likely they also have an end-time dimension.

Philistia (47)
Verse 1 tells us this prophecy was given before Pharaoh attacked Gaza, which happened in 609 BC when Pharaoh Necho was on his way to assist Assyria. It was the same year that King Josiah of Judah was killed by Pharaoh at the battle of Megiddo. Jeremiah pronounces that the time has come to destroy all the Philistines (v4), and the support they provided to Tyre and Sidon. However, as is common in biblical prophecies where God pronounces the destruction of a nation, a remnant of that nation still survives. This oracle of Jeremiah against the Philistines appears to have been fulfilled historically through the attack by Egypt, and possibly again by an attack from the north (v2) by the Babylonians. But judgment on Philistia features in several end time prophecies (Search by Place: Philistia). In Psalm 83:7, Philistia is part of the end-time coalition that attacks Israel, but is humiliated. Ezekiel 25:15-17 pronounces what may be an end-time judgment against Philistia. In Psalm 108:9, God (Jesus) shouts in triumph over Philistia. In Isaiah 11:14, and Zephaniah 2:4-7, Jesus and restored Israel swoop down on the hills of Philistia, and take possession of their land. But on a redemptive note, in Psalm 87:4, a remnant from Philistia is included among the citizens of Millennial Jerusalem, and in Zechariah 9:7 the survivors of Philistia become a community of believers in God, like a clan in Judah. Here in Jeremiah 47:4, the Philistines are identified as having originally emigrated from Crete. When the Romans conquered Israel in 63 BC, they renamed it Palestine after Israel's historic enemies, as a means of humiliating the Jews. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, when Israel came under British control, the British resurrected the name Palestine, referring to Israel as British Mandate Palestine. After the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948, its Arab population and refugees began to refer to themselves as the Palestinians. This doesn't mean they are necessarily descendants of the Philistines. But if we assume that end-time people groups are identified geographically in the bible, it is reasonable to still associate Gaza and its Palestinian occupants with Philistia of end-time prophecies. On the same basis, today's disputed West Bank and its Palestinian occupants would be associated with biblical Ephraim or Samaria.

While studying these oracles against Israel's neighbours, it is helpful to note where these ancient territories were on the map in relation to ancient Israel, and how they correspond to today's map of the Middle East:
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Moab (48:1-47)
The Moabites and Ammonites were descendants of Abraham's nephew lot, and occupied the northern part of what is modern-day Jordan, on the east side of the Dead Sea. It appears from Jeremiah 27:3 that along with Zedekiah of Judah, Moab also rebelled against Babylon. Jeremiah warned them, along with Edom, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon, that any nations that failed to serve Nebuchadnezzar would end up being driven into exile. This chapter is a long and mournful lament over Moab's coming judgment. Moab is charged with pride (v29), with trusting in the false god Chemosh (v13), and with laughing at the people of Israel (v27). God calls the nations around Moab to mourn over her (v17), and God himself even weeps and moans in sadness over her judgment (v31).

Presumably there was at least a partial fulfilment of this prophecy against Moab, some time after the destruction of Judah in 586 BC. In Ezekiel 25:1-8, after the fall of Jerusalem, Ezekiel prophesied that Ammon and Moab would be handed over as slaves to the tribes of the east, that is the Arab tribes of Arabia, also known as the people of Kedar. Judgment against Moab features in several end-time prophecies. In Numbers 24:17, Balaam saw a vision of Jesus arising as king of Israel and crushing the skulls of Moab. Psalm 83 portrays an end-time Arab coalition attacking Israel, 'lending strength to the descendants of Lot'. So it seems that Jordan may be the instigators of an end-time plot to wipe Israel off the map. The psalm is written as a prayer, and clearly implies that Israel's enemies will end up being defeated and humiliated. In Psalm 108 which prophesies God reclaiming ownership of Gilead and Manasseh (on the east side of the Jordan) and Ephraim (today's disputed West Bank), Moab and Edom are both reduced to subservient status (Moab is portrayed as God's washbasin). Isaiah 11:10-14 portrays Jesus restoring the Jewish exiles to Israel, and them plundering and subjugating Moab, Ammon and Edom. Isaiah 25:11 portrays Moab being especially humiliated after Jesus' second coming. In Jeremiah 25:21, Moab appears in the long list of middle eastern nations that will drink the cup of God's wrath in the end times. In Zephaniah 2:9 Moab is destroyed like Sodom and Gomorrah, and their land then taken by the Jewish remnant. Here in Jeremiah 48, verses 33 to 46 describe the severity of Moab's doom, but the chapter ends on a positive note in verse 47, "Yet in days to come I will reverse Moab's ill fortune, says the LORD". Perhaps this restoration of Moab will occur in the Millennium.
Ammon (49:1-6)
Ammon equates to the northern part of modern-day Jordan. God accuses them in verse 1 of taking over the land of Gad, one of the Israelite tribes on the east side of the Jordan, and takes issue with their worship of the false god Milcom, also known as Molech. The worship of Molech was notorious for the practice of child sacrifice (2 Kings 23:10). Gad was one of the tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel that was taken into exile by the Assyrians in 722 BC, and never returned. God asks the Ammonites the question, "Do you think there are not any of them remaining to reinherit their land?" The northern tribes have now been in exile for 2,700 years and are known as the lost ten tribes. So humanly speaking, it looks reasonable for Jordan to assume that the Israelite tribe of Gad is not about to return to reclaim its territory. However, various end-time prophecies indicate that God knows who the lost ten tribes are, and that he intends to restore them to the land, so that they will reinherit not only their own ancestral territories, but also land belonging to their enemies (Isaiah 11:10-14, Jeremiah 30:18-24; 31:1-23; 33:7-26, Obadiah 1:18-21). As with Moab, Jeremiah 27:3 includes Ammon as one of the countries that conspired with King Zedekiah of Judah to rebel against Nebuchadnezzar. Furthermore, after the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar put Gedaliah in charge of Judah and its small remaining remnant. It was King Baalis of Ammon who instigated Gedaliah's murder (Jeremiah 40:13-41:15). Also as noted about Moab, Zephaniah 2:9 prophesies the end-time destruction of Ammon like that of Sodom and Gomorrah. Jeremiah's oracle against Ammon ends on a positive note in 49:6, "Yet in days to come I will reverse Ammon's ill fortune, says the LORD". It is possible this was fulfilled in history, but it is also possible that God plans to restore and bless a remnant from Ammon in the Millennium.

Edom (49:7-22)
Edom was originally the region between the bottom of the Dead Sea and Aqaba, around the hill country of Seir (Genesis 36:8) in what is today southern Jordan and southern Israel. Its capital, Bozrah (today known as Buseira) was south of the Dead Sea, near Petra. In later times, Edom was seen to extend south into what is now Saudi Arabia as far as Dedan (v8) - also see Ezekiel 25:13. Dedan is modern-day Al-Ula in western Saudi Arabia, a little north of Medina. Nabonidus, the last king of the Babylonian Empire, extended his empire down through Edom and into Saudi Arabia as far as Medina. In fact, he spent much of his reign in Tema in Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar to rule Babylon as regent. Considering the devastating apocalyptic nature of this and other prophecies against Edom, it is likely that this oracle is primarily about Edom's end-time destruction, and not just about events in the 6th century BC. On my Pieces page, if you search by place for 'Edom' you will see the great number of prophecies relating to judgment on Edom. The Edomites were the descendants of Jacob's brother Esau, and although Jacob was eventually reconciled with Esau (Genesis 33), the Israelites and Edomites were hostile towards each other from the time of the Exodus (Numbers 20:14-20). King David subjugated Edom (1 Chronicles 18:13) so that it was part of Israel's small empire during his and Solomon's reigns. The Book of Obadiah records that when Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah, the Edomites joined in the looting and took advantage of their misfortune. This act of betrayal is greatly condemned in several passages (Psalm 137:7, Lamentations 4:21-22, Ezekiel 25:12-14; 35:1-15, Isaiah 34:5-15; 63-1-6). In Isaiah 63:1-6, Jesus is portrayed marching through Edom, his clothes splattered with the blood of those he has slaughtered, as though he has been stomping grapes in a winepress. In Isaiah 21, the fall of 'Babylon' in the 'Desert by the Sea' (the Arabian Peninsula) is associated with judgment on Edom. Here in Jeremiah 49, we are told that Edom will be destroyed like Sodom and Gomorrah (v18). Except for widows and orphans, the Edomites will be destroyed (v10-11). God (Jesus) will chase the Edomites off their land, like a lion coming up from the Jordan and scattering the sheep in the pastureland around it (v19). God will completely destroy the Edomites because of what they have done, and even their little ones will be dragged off (v20). Verse 20 is the basis of Psalm 137:9, "How blessed will be the one who grabs your babies and smashes them on a rock!". The same psalm also identifies Edom as 'Daughter Babylon'. According to verse 22, an enemy nation will be involved in the judgment of Edom, "Like an eagle with outspread wings, a nation will soar up and swoop down on Bozrah". Based also on Isaiah 21:2, this is most likely an aerial attack by Iran. As a result, Edom's soldiers will be as fearful as a woman in labour.

Between this chapter and Zephaniah 2, all three of Ammon, Moab and Edom are condemned to destruction like Sodom and Gomorrah. Today, the nation of Jordan is probably the most moderate and pro-western of the Islamic nations. King Abdullah, like his father King Hussein, has sought to maintain strong ties with the west, and to follow a moderate expression of Islam. It makes me wonder if he will be overthrown, and a more radical leadership take over Jordan. According to Daniel 11:42, Edom, Ammon and Moab escape conquest by the Antichrist. But Jordan seems to be at the centre of the Arab plot against Israel in Psalm 83:8, as the surrounding Arab nations are said to lend strength to the descendants of Lot (Ammon and Moab). Perhaps Jordan escapes conquest by the Antichrist by forming an alliance with him.

Damascus (49:23-27)
This oracle of judgment against Damascus may have been fulfilled historically, either by Assyrian invasion (Isaiah 10:9), or by Babylonian invasion. However, judgment is pronounced against Damascus in Amos 1 and Zechariah 9, and both these chapters appear to have an end-time fulfilment involving Jesus as a warrior. In Amos 1:2, judgment against Damascus is introduced with "The Lord comes roaring out of Zion; from Jerusalem he comes bellowing!" As with the soldiers of Edom (v22), so also the soldiers of Damascus are gripped with panic and anguish like a woman in labour (v24). They will all be destroyed at that time (v26), and the city will be burned (v27) and deserted (v25).

Kedar and Hazor (49:28-33)
This oracle prophesies judgment on Kedar and Hazor. Kedar refers to the tribes of the eastern desert (v28), meaning Arabia, and the description of them living in tents (v29) is consistent with them being described as nomads in Isaiah 42:11. The location of the kingdoms of Hazor is unknown, but given that Jeremiah connects the two, they were probably settled residents of Arabia. Jeremiah prophesies that King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon will attack them (v30), they will be scattered to the four winds (v32), and their territory will become a permanent wasteland where only wild animals will live. It is possible that 'King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon' is being used metaphorically here and represents the Antichrist. Jeremiah 25 starts with a prophecy about King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and ends with a prophecy about the 'king of Sheshach', which Revelation 17-18 interprets as 'Mystery Babylon'. Isaiah 21 also describes the people of Kedar fleeing as refugees to Dedan and Tema in western Arabia, and the fall of 'the splendour of Kedar' after one calendar year.

Elam (49:34-39)
Elam, with its capital Susa, was in the west of modern-day Iran, along the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf and overlapping slightly with modern-day Iraq. This prophecy was received by Jeremiah early in the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah, who ruled from 597 to 586 BC. He prophesies disaster upon Elam, with enemies attacking from all directions, and her people being scattered in all directions as refugees. In 585 BC, Ezekiel prophesied about Elam descending into the pit (Ezekiel 32:24-25), along with several other nations. Elam was absorbed into the Persian empire in 540 BC, under Cyrus the Great. It is possible this prophecy was fulfilled at that time, but it is also likely that it has an end-time dimension. Isaiah 21 prophesies Elam attacking the Desert by the Seas (the Arabian Peninsula), and the announcement being made that, "Babylon has fallen, fallen!" (Isaiah 21:9), a refrain that is taken up in Revelation 18:2 concerning the fall of 'Mystery Babylon'. In Ezekiel 38:5, Persia (Iran) is allied with Gog (the Antichrist) in his end-time invasion of Israel. Jesus will defeat the Antichrist and all his allies at the battle of Armageddon. Here in Jeremiah 49, God says "I will establish my sovereignty over Elam, I will destroy their king and their leaders". This is likely referring to the establishment of Jesus' kingdom over Iran, and his execution of the kings of the earth as in Psalm 110:5-6.
Tags
Places: Philistia, Gaza, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Jordan, Tyre, Lebanon, Damascus, Syria, Kedar, Arabia, Elam, Iran
Symbols:
Tags: Judgment of Philistia, Judgment of Moab, Judgment of Ammon, Judgment of Edom, Judgment of Elam, Judgment of Kedar, Antichrist as Nebuchadnezzar, Edom will be destroyed like Sodom and Gomorrah
Judgment on the Philistine Cities
47 This was the Lord’s message to the prophet Jeremiah about the Philistines before Pharaoh attacked Gaza.
2 “Look! Enemies are gathering in the north like water rising in a river. They will be like an overflowing stream. They will overwhelm the whole country and everything in it like a flood. They will overwhelm the cities and their inhabitants. People will cry out in alarm. Everyone living in the country will cry out in pain.
3 Fathers will hear the hoofbeats of the enemies’ horses, the clatter of their chariots and the rumbling of their wheels. They will not turn back to save their children because they will be paralyzed with fear.
4 For the time has come to destroy all the Philistines. The time has come to destroy all the help that remains for Tyre and Sidon. For I, the Lord, will destroy the Philistines, that remnant that came from the island of Crete.
5 The people of Gaza will shave their heads in mourning. The people of Ashkelon will be struck dumb. How long will you gash yourselves to show your sorrow, you who remain of Philistia’s power?
6 How long will you cry out, ‘Oh, sword of the Lord, how long will it be before you stop killing? Go back into your sheath! Stay there and rest!’
7 But how can it rest when I, the Lord, have given it orders? I have ordered it to attack the people of Ashkelon and the seacoast.

Judgment Against Moab

48 The Lord of Heaven’s Armies, the God of Israel spoke about Moab. “Sure to be judged is Nebo! Indeed, it will be destroyed! Kiriathaim will suffer disgrace. It will be captured! Its fortress will suffer disgrace. It will be torn down!
2 People will not praise Moab any more. The enemy will capture Heshbon and plot how to destroy Moab, saying, ‘Come, let’s put an end to that nation!’ City of Madmen, you will also be destroyed. A destructive army will march against you.
3 Cries of anguish will arise in Horonaim, ‘Oh, the ruin and great destruction!’
4 “Moab will be crushed. Her children will cry out in distress.
5 Indeed they will climb the slopes of Luhith, weeping continually as they go. For on the road down to Horonaim they will hear the cries of distress over the destruction.
6 They will hear, ‘Run! Save yourselves! Even if you must be like a lonely shrub in the wilderness!’
7 “Moab, you trust in the things you do and in your riches. So you too will be conquered. Your god Chemosh will go into exile along with his priests and his officials.
8 The destroyer will come against every town. Not one town will escape. The towns in the valley will be destroyed. The cities on the high plain will be laid waste. I, the Lord, have spoken!
9 Set up a gravestone for Moab, for it will certainly be laid in ruins! Its cities will be laid waste and become uninhabited.”
10 A curse on anyone who is lax in doing the Lord’s work! A curse on anyone who keeps from carrying out his destruction!
11 “From its earliest days Moab has lived undisturbed. It has never been taken into exile. Its people are like wine allowed to settle undisturbed on its dregs, never poured out from one jar to another. They are like wine which tastes like it always did, whose aroma has remained unchanged.
12 But the time is coming when I will send men against Moab who will empty it out. They will empty the towns of their people, then will lay those towns in ruins. I, the Lord, affirm it!
13 The people of Moab will be disappointed by their god Chemosh. They will be as disappointed as the people of Israel were when they put their trust in the calf god at Bethel.
14 How can you men of Moab say, ‘We are heroes, men who are mighty in battle?’
15 Moab will be destroyed. Its towns will be invaded. Its finest young men will be slaughtered. I, the King, the Lord of Heaven’s Armies, affirm it!
16 Moab’s destruction is at hand. Disaster will come on it quickly.
17 Mourn for that nation, all you nations living around it, all of you nations that know of its fame. Mourn and say, ‘Alas, its powerful influence has been broken! Its glory and power have been done away!’
18 Come down from your place of honor; sit on the dry ground, you who live in Dibon. For the one who will destroy Moab will attack you; he will destroy your fortifications.
19 You who live in Aroer, stand by the road and watch. Question the man who is fleeing and the woman who is escaping. Ask them, ‘What has happened?’
20 They will answer, ‘Moab is disgraced, for it has fallen! Wail and cry out in mourning! Announce along the Arnon River that Moab has been destroyed.’
21 “Judgment will come on the cities on the high plain: on Holon, Jahzah, and Mephaath,
22 on Dibon, Nebo, and Beth Diblathaim,
23 on Kiriathaim, Beth Gamul, and Beth Meon,
24 on Kerioth and Bozrah. It will come on all the towns of Moab, both far and near.
25 Moab’s might will be crushed. Its power will be broken. I, the Lord, affirm it!
26 “Moab has vaunted itself against me. So make him drunk with the wine of my wrath until he splashes around in his own vomit, until others treat him as a laughingstock.
27 For did not you people of Moab laugh at the people of Israel? Did you think that they were nothing but thieves, that you shook your head in contempt every time you talked about them?
28 Leave your towns, you inhabitants of Moab. Go and live in the cliffs. Be like a dove that makes its nest high on the sides of a ravine.
29 I have heard how proud the people of Moab are, I know how haughty they are. I have heard how arrogant, proud, and haughty they are, what a high opinion they have of themselves.
30 I, the Lord, affirm that I know how arrogant they are. But their pride is ill-founded. Their boastings will prove to be false.
31 So I will weep with sorrow for Moab. I will cry out in sadness for all of Moab. I will moan for the people of Kir Heres.
32 I will weep for the grapevines of Sibmah just like the town of Jazer weeps over them. Their branches once spread as far as the Dead Sea. They reached as far as the town of Jazer. The destroyer will ravage her fig, date, and grape crops.
33 Joy and gladness will disappear from the fruitful land of Moab. I will stop the flow of wine from the winepresses. No one will stomp on the grapes there and shout for joy. The shouts there will be shouts of soldiers, not the shouts of those making wine.
34 Cries of anguish raised from Heshbon and Elealeh will be sounded as far as Jahaz. They will be sounded from Zoar as far as Horonaim and Eglath Shelishiyah. For even the waters of Nimrim will be dried up.
35 I will put an end in Moab to those who make offerings at her places of worship. I will put an end to those who sacrifice to other gods. I, the Lord, affirm it!
36 So my heart moans for Moab like a flute playing a funeral song. Yes, like a flute playing a funeral song, my heart moans for the people of Kir Heres. For the wealth they have gained will perish.
37 For all of them will shave their heads in mourning. They will all cut off their beards to show their sorrow. They will all make gashes in their hands. They will all put on sackcloth.
38 On all the housetops in Moab and in all its public squares there will be nothing but mourning. For I will break Moab like an unwanted jar. I, the Lord, affirm it!
39 Oh, how shattered Moab will be! Oh, how her people will wail! Oh, how she will turn away in shame! Moab will become an object of ridicule, a terrifying sight to all the nations that surround her.”
40 For the Lord says, “Look! Like an eagle with outspread wings a nation will swoop down on Moab.
41 Her towns will be captured. Her fortresses will be taken. At that time the soldiers of Moab will be frightened like a woman in labor.
42 Moab will be destroyed and no longer be a nation, because she has vaunted herself against the Lord.
43 Terror, pits, and traps are in store for the people who live in Moab. I, the Lord, affirm it!
44 Anyone who flees at the sound of terror will fall into a pit. Anyone who climbs out of the pit will be caught in a trap. For the time is coming when I will punish the people of Moab. I, the Lord, affirm it!
45 In the shadows of the walls of Heshbon those trying to escape will stand helpless. For a fire will burst forth from Heshbon. Flames will shoot out from the former territory of Sihon. They will burn the foreheads of the people of Moab, the skulls of those war-loving people.
46 Moab, you are doomed! You people who worship Chemosh will be destroyed. Your sons will be taken away captive. Your daughters will be carried away into exile.
47 Yet in days to come I will reverse Moab’s ill fortune,” says the Lord. The judgment against Moab ends here.

Judgment Against Ammon
49 The Lord spoke about the Ammonites. “Do you think there are not any people of the nation of Israel remaining? Do you think there are not any of them remaining to reinherit their land? Is that why you people who worship the god Milcom have taken possession of the territory of Gad and live in his cities?
2 Because you did that, I, the Lord, affirm that a time is coming when I will make Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon, hear the sound of the battle cry. It will become a mound covered with ruins. Its villages will be burned to the ground. Then Israel will take back its land from those who took their land from them. I, the Lord, affirm it!
3 Wail, you people in Heshbon, because Ai in Ammon is destroyed. Cry out in anguish, you people in the villages surrounding Rabbah. Put on sackcloth and cry out in mourning. Run about covered with gashes. For your god Milcom will go into exile along with his priests and officials.
4 Why do you brag about your great power? Your power is ebbing away, you rebellious people of Ammon, who trust in your riches and say, ‘Who would dare to attack us?’
5 I will bring terror on you from every side,” says the Sovereign Lord of Heaven’s Armies. “You will be scattered in every direction. No one will gather the fugitives back together.
6 Yet in days to come I will reverse Ammon’s ill fortune.” says the Lord.

Judgment Against Edom

7 The Lord of Heaven’s Armies spoke about Edom. “Is wisdom no longer to be found in Teman? Can Edom’s counselors not give her any good advice? Has all of their wisdom turned bad?
8 Turn and flee! Take up refuge in remote places, you people who live in Dedan. For I will bring disaster on the descendants of Esau. I have decided it is time for me to punish them.
9 If grape pickers came to pick your grapes, would they not leave a few grapes behind? If robbers came at night, would they not pillage only what they needed?
10 But I will strip everything away from Esau’s descendants. I will uncover their hiding places so they cannot hide. Their children, relatives, and neighbors will all be destroyed. Not one of them will be left!
11 Leave your orphans behind and I will keep them alive. Your widows too can depend on me.”
12 For the Lord says, “If even those who did not deserve to drink from the cup of my wrath must drink from it, do you think you will go unpunished? You will not go unpunished, but must certainly drink from the cup of my wrath.
13 For I solemnly swear,” says the Lord, “that Bozrah will become a pile of ruins. It will become an object of horror and ridicule, an example to be used in curses. All the towns around it will lie in ruins forever.”
14 I said, “I have heard a message from the Lord. A messenger has been sent among the nations to say, ‘Gather your armies and march out against her! Prepare to do battle with her!’”
15 The Lord says to Edom, “I will certainly make you small among nations. I will make you despised by all humankind.
16 The terror you inspire in others and the arrogance of your heart have deceived you. You may make your home in the clefts of the rocks; you may occupy the highest places in the hills. But even if you made your home where the eagles nest, I would bring you down from there,” says the Lord.
17 “Edom will become an object of horror. All who pass by it will be filled with horror; they will hiss out their scorn because of all the disasters that have happened to it.
18 Edom will be destroyed like Sodom and Gomorrah and the towns that were around them. No one will live there. No human being will settle in it,” says the Lord.
19 “A lion coming up from the thick undergrowth along the Jordan scatters the sheep in the pastureland around it. So too I will chase the Edomites off their land. Then I will appoint over it whomever I choose. For there is no one like me, and there is no one who can call me to account. There is no ruler who can stand up against me.
20 So listen to what I, the Lord, have planned against Edom, what I intend to do to the people who live in Teman. Their little ones will be dragged off. I will completely destroy their land because of what they have done.
21 The people of the earth will quake when they hear of their downfall. Their cries of anguish will be heard all the way to the Gulf of Aqaba.
22 Look! Like an eagle with outspread wings, a nation will soar up and swoop down on Bozrah. At that time the soldiers of Edom will be as fearful as a woman in labor.”

Judgment Against Damascus

23 The Lord spoke about Damascus. “The people of Hamath and Arpad will be dismayed because they have heard bad news. Their courage will melt away because of worry. Their hearts will not be able to rest.
24 The people of Damascus will lose heart and turn to flee. Panic will grip them. Pain and anguish will seize them like a woman in labor.
25 How deserted will that once-famous city be, that city that was once filled with joy!
26 For her young men will fall in her city squares. All her soldiers will be destroyed at that time,” says the Lord of Heaven’s Armies.
27 “I will set fire to the walls of Damascus; it will burn up the palaces of Ben Hadad.”

Judgment Against Kedar and Hazor

28 The Lord spoke about Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor that King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered. “Army of Babylon, go and attack Kedar. Lay waste those who live in the eastern desert.
29 Their tents and their flocks will be taken away. Their tent curtains, equipment, and camels will be carried off. People will shout to them, ‘Terror is all around you!’”
30 The Lord says, “Flee quickly, you who live in Hazor. Take up refuge in remote places. For King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon has laid out plans to attack you. He has formed his strategy on how to defeat you.”
31 The Lord says, “Army of Babylon, go and attack a nation that lives in peace and security. They have no gates or walls to protect them. They live all alone.
32 Their camels will be taken as plunder. Their vast herds will be taken as spoil. I will scatter to the four winds those desert peoples who cut their hair short at the temples. I will bring disaster against them from every direction,” says the Lord.
33 “Hazor will become a permanent wasteland, a place where only jackals live. No one will live there. No human being will settle in it.”

Judgment Against Elam

34 This was the Lord’s message to the prophet Jeremiah about Elam, which came early in the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah.
35 The Lord of Heaven’s Armies said, “I will kill all the archers of Elam, who are the chief source of her military might.
36 I will cause enemies to blow through Elam from every direction like the winds blowing in from the four quarters of heaven. I will scatter the people of Elam to the four winds. There will not be any nation where the refugees of Elam will not go.
37 I will make the people of Elam terrified of their enemies, who are seeking to kill them. I will vent my fierce anger and bring disaster upon them,” says the Lord. “I will send armies chasing after them until I have completely destroyed them.
38 I will establish my sovereignty over Elam. I will destroy their king and their leaders,” says the Lord.
39 “Yet in days to come I will reverse Elam’s ill fortune,” says the Lord.
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